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Eruv Chatzeiros (and Techumin)
MBY 528:1-2 Eruv Chatzeiros (and Techumin)

In this short siman, we will discuss three questions, iy”H:
1) Does one need to set up an ‘eruv’ to carry objects on Yom Tov, as on Shabbos?
[Ed. The term ‘eruv’ here is used in its common reference to an ‘eruv chatzeiros’ – lit. mixing of the courtyard, i.e. an arrangement made by neighbors which allows the neighborhood to be considered a single halachic domain, after having been circumscribed by a kosher “fence”. There are actually two other kinds of ‘eruv’: one, the ‘eruv tavshilin’, which permits preparing on Yom Tov for Shabbos, of which we learned in the previous siman; and two, the ‘eruv techumin’, which permits walking a certain distance outside of a city’s limits on Shabbos. The latter will be the third point discussed in this lesson.] To answer this first question, we will quote from an earlier MBY lesson: MBY 518:1-9 ‘Hotza’a’/Carrying and transporting on Yom Tov (abridged)
“Question: What effect, if any, does having an Eruv up have on one’s ability to carry on Yom Tov? Answer: It sounds funny – to have an Eruv on Yom Tov - because we associate Yom Tov with permission to carry even without an Eruv. Upon closer examination, however, we see that having an Eruv can make a big difference for Yom Tov carrying as well. Although it is not advisable to establish an Eruv just for Yom Tov use, if an Eruv is already in place for Shabbos, then its existence will extend the permission to carry on Yom Tov, even to those cases where it is not clearly for Yom Tov use, such as the examples given above (e.g. bringing the siddur home from shul, playing catch with a ball etc.)” Please refer to the entire lesson there for a fuller background explanation on this question.

2) If one needs to set up an ‘eruv chatzeiros’ for Shabbos, can he do so on Thursday or Friday, if those days are Yom Tov?
In principle, we may not make any kind of eruv on Yom Tov, because we are not allowed to do things that appear to be “fixing” things, which every eruv does in a halachic sense. However, if one acts on Thursday (when Yom Tov is on Thursday and Friday) he may set up the eruv using the kind of contingency declaration we learned about in our previous lesson (Remember, the one that knocked your socks off?!) It goes something like this: “If today (Thursday) is not Yom Tov, then I am establishing an eruv for Shabbos. If today is Yom Tov, then I am not establishing an eruv today, but I will tomorrow, which will not be Yom Tov.” (Note: This kind of stipulation does not apply to the two days of Rosh Hashana, as we indicated regarding the ET, and it is also not permitted to be used for an eruv techumin.)

3) If one wishes to walk outside of the city’s ‘techum’ (boundary), is it prohibited on Yom Tov just as on Shabbos, unless an “eruv techumin” is made?
Yes! Although the prohibition against carrying objects on Yom Tov are much different than on Shabbos, the prohibition against walking outside of the city’s techum apply equally to Shabbos and Yom Tov, as do the laws of the eruv techumin. (Ed. We did not study the halachos of the techum and its eruv, nor of the laws of eruv chatzeiros, in our lessons on Hilchos Shabbos, because they are not found in the 3rd volume of Mishna Berura, but rather in the 4th volume – the most difficult one! May Hashem grant us the ability to learn and teach the entire Torah!)

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