In 2005 (5765) and 2008 (5768), Pesach began on Motzei Shabbos. On average, this occurs approximately once in every nine years. Those years make for an extra-challenging Erev Pesach, given that it is on Shabbos, raising many issues that complicate an already-complicated set of halachos. The following is a partial list of questions that are addressed in the Shulchan Aruch. Most are concerned with the removal of chametz. During your first perusal through this list, please pause to simply appreciate each question, and how Erev Pesach is impacted by Shabbos. Afterwards, think of any other questions that are not covered. Come up with any? Enjoy this part of the learning process; iy”H, we will get to the solutions a bit later!
Questions covered in this siman:
1) When is BC (bedikas chametz – remember the abbreviation) done when Erev Pesach occurs on Shabbos?
2) When is biur/burning of chametz done – day and time of day?
3) When are the 2 versions of bitul /nullification recited?
4) May we leave some chametz in our homes for Shabbos use? How?
5) What kind of food should be eaten at the Shabbos meals? Especially for ‘lechem mishneh’ (double loaves) for the three meals?
6) Related to the previous question, can utensils and dishes used on Shabbos for chametz-dik food be cleaned?
7) How can leftover chametz on Shabbos be disposed of?
As mentioned, the above questions are the main issues dealt with in this siman. What we will study now is a practical halachic guide provided by Rabbi Dovid Heber of the Star-K in Baltimore. I think we will find that his article answers the above questions and then some. Note: Where Hebrew terms are used that we have not introduced in our lessons, I will insert translations. Please holler if you think there are still some un-answered questions. Enjoy!
A GUIDE TO SHABBOS EREV PESACH
Rabbi Dovid Heber, Star-K Kashrus Administrator Many of us are quite familiar with the regular Erev Pesach routine: The bechorim go to a siyum, the chometz is burned, and we prepare for the seder. However, every so often, Erev Pesach occurs on Shabbos and we must modify this routine. Let us review the halachos of Shabbos Erev Pesach:
Thursday - Taanis Bechorim (Fast of the Firstborn)/Bedikas Chometz On a regular Erev Pesach the first born males (bechorim) are obligated to fast. This year the fast is pushed back to Thursday. Those bechorim who do not wish to fast should attend a siyum. Thursday night after tzais hakochavim (emergence of three stars, i.e. when it gets dark), one should immediately perform bedikas chometz. A bracha and kol chamira (the text of bitul, same as usual) are recited.
Friday - Erev Shabbos Chometz which is necessary for Friday night and Shabbos morning meals should be placed in a disposable container away from all Pesach food. Although chometz may be purchased and eaten all day Friday, the custom is to sell and burn the chometz before the sof zman biur chometz (deadline for selling/destroying chametz) had this day been Erev Pesach (end of 5th halachic hour of the day). Burning it later could lead to confusion in subsequent years. Kol Chamira (second bitul) is not recited at the time of burning. All keilim (vessels, utensils) should l’chatchila (preferably) be kashered by this time. B’dieved (if need be), one could kasher keilim until candle lighting on Friday.
The following preparations for the seder should be made on Erev Shabbos: Roast the egg and z’roah (shankbone), check and clean lettuce leaves, chop the nuts for the charoses, and grate the horseradish. Food cooked for Shabbos and Yom Tov should be kosher L’Pesach and cooked in Pesachdik pots.
After chatzos (mid-day) on a regular Erev Pesach, one may not perform various melochos (e.g. shave, do laundry, etc. – Ed. We will learn more about this in a later lesson.) These halachos do not apply this year for Erev Shabbos is not Erev Pesach.
Friday Evening and Shabbos Day
Except for hamotzi, all meals should be eaten on Pesachdik utensils. These utensils should not be brought to the table until after all crumbs are cleared away. Alternatively, one may use disposable utensils. The procedure for hamotzi for all Shabbos meals is as follows: Use small fresh rolls for lechem mishnah (there are less crumbs with fresh rolls). Lechem mishnah should be placed on tissues on the table. Nothing Pesachdik should be on the table with the rolls. All the rolls should be eaten carefully over tissues, so that any remaining crumbs can be wrapped in the tissues and flushed. The table should then be cleared of all chometz. All disposable items (e.g. plastic tablecloth, plates, etc.) used with chometz should be discarded in a trash can. The rest of the Pesachdik meal should be served on Pesachdik or disposable dishes. For children who may leave crumbs, egg matzoh may be substituted. Because the brocha on egg matzoh is a matter of dispute, adults should use rolls for lechem mishnah. After making hamotzi and eating a k’zayis (olive-size piece) of the roll, adults may eat egg matzoh until the sof zman achilas chometz (deadline for eating chametz on Erev Pesach). On Shabbos Erev Pesach, regular matzoh may not be eaten by anyone except children under six. If one is concerned with eating any bread inside, one may eat outside on the porch or the backyard (if it is permissible to carry - i.e. within a reshus hayachid / private domain). Recite hamotzi, eat the rolls, then sweep the crumbs off the table and off the porch. One may not sweep the crumbs into the wind or out of an Eruv. One may finish the meal inside. Birchas Hamazon (bentching) should l’chatchila (preferably) be recited where the bread was eaten.
Shacharis on Shabbos morning should be scheduled earlier than usual because one must recite hamotzi on lechem mishnah before the sof zman achilas chometz (end of 4th halachic hour of the day). After disposing of all chometz, one must recite the same kol chamira that is usually said when burning the chometz (the second bitul). This must be done before the sof zman biur chometz (end of 5th halachic hour). It is recited even if it was already recited by mistake on Friday at the time of biur chometz. One may continue his Pesachdik meal and recite Birchas Hamazon after these times.
During Seudah Shlishis on an ordinary Shabbos one must have lechem mishnah and l’chatchila eat more than a k’baya (egg-sized piece, i.e. more than two k’zaysim / olive sizes) of bread after the time of mincha gedola (1/2 halachic hour after chatzos/midday). On this Shabbos, one may not eat bread or matzoh at this time. What is the solution? One must eat "other foods" during the afternoon including fish, fruit or potato starch cake any time between mincha gedola and sunset. However, if one eats these foods after the begining of the tenth hour, one should be especially careful not eat too much and thereby curb his appetite at the seder. For those who follow the custom of eating gebrokts (matzah or matzah meal mixed with water – most people we know do!) on Pesach, products containing matzoh meal that were cooked (e.g. knaidlach / matzah balls) may be eaten if they are consumed before the 10th hour of the day. Baked matzoh meal products, including cakes, may not be eaten all day.
If time permits, it is preferable to also "split the morning meal" in the following manner: Recite hamotzi and eat rolls, recite Birchas Hamazon and take a walk outside. Then, wash for Seudah Shlishis and recite hamotzi. One must be careful to finish the bread and dispose of the crumbs by the times indicated above. If one does this, one should still eat something after mincha gedola as described above.
The following paragraph extends beyond the subject of Erev Pesach on Shabbos and this siman. It deals with special considerations for the seder when it occurs on Motzei Shabbos. As it conludes this very informative and well-written article by Rav Heber, I will quote it here for you:
Motzai Shabbos & The Seder
All preparation for Yom Tov and the seder may not begin until Shabbos is over (tzais hakochavim). As previously indicated, some preparations should be done before Shabbos. One may also wish to set the seder table before Shabbos and eat in the kitchen on Shabbos to allow the seder to begin as early as possible after Shabbos.
Kiddush and havdalah are recited together at the seder as printed in the Hagaddah. One should recite borei meorei ha’aish (the bracha over the havdala candle) using the Yom Tov candles, putting them together side by side while upright. They should not be tilted to touch each other. Alternatively, one may recite the brocha using a non-frosted incandescent light bulb which was turned on before Shabbos (or was turned on by a timer set before Shabbos). At the seder there is one change to the Hagaddah. In the brocha of asher g’alanu (last bracha of Maggid) prior to the second cup of wine we reverse the order and say min hapesachim u’min hazevachim (instead of the opposite order). This is due to the change in the order of korbanos (sacrifices) when Pesach occurs on motzai Shabbos.
When Erev Pesach occurs on Shabbos it affords a rare opportunity to rest on Erev Pesach. When I was a student in yeshiva, I once commented to Mr. Hyman Flaks z"l, the Executive Director of the Vaad Hoeir (Rabbinical Council) of St. Louis, that when Erev Pesach occurs on Shabbos preparations are so difficult. He answered, "This type of year is my favorite year. My work in the field of kashrus is so hectic before Pesach - with a Shabbos to rest, I can come to the seder feeling like a mentch!" Today, I understand exactly what he meant. As we all prepare for Pesach, amidst the hectic frenzy, we can look forward to the rare Erev Pesach which is on the Yom Menucha (day of rest.)