(Once again, we quote heavily from A Summary of the Halachos of the Three Weeks, by Rav Shimon Eider zt”l, pp. 26-28, 30)
The Talis and Tefillin are not worn at Shacharis. The reason the Talis is not worn is based on a passage in the Midrash on the pasuk in Eicha 2:17. The pasuk states ‘Bitza emraso’ (lit. “He carried out His decree”). However, the Midrash explains it to mean ‘Biza parforin shelo’ (“He tore His royal garments”, referring to the fact that Hashem allowed Titus - the Roman general who executed the destruction of the Second Temple - to pierce the ‘Paroches’ (curtain) in the Beis Hamikdash. In commemoration of this loss and desecration, two minhagim developed for Tisha B’Av: 1) To remove the ‘Paroches’ of the Aron Kodesh (Ark in the shul), and 2) To withhold from wearing the Talis Gadol (also a royal garment) until Mincha time. [Note: The Talis Katan, however, is worn under one’s garments and donned without a bracha.] The reason the Tefillin is not worn is because they are referred to as ‘P’eir’ – i.e. ornaments – and it is not proper to wear ornaments on the most bitter and barren day in Jewish History.
The Talis and Tefillin are worn for Mincha. There are various opinions among the Poskim whether Shema should be said now while we are wearing Tefillin. Some Poskim hold that it is prohibited, because it is considered like learning Torah (Ed. – since it is not part of the Tefila service of Mincha.) Other Poskim hold that it is considered part of the order of davening, which may be said even if it consists of portions of the Torah. One should conduct himself according to his minhag. (Ed. FYI, I do not say the Shema at Mincha.)
A person should deprive himself of some degree of comfort when going to sleep on the night of Tisha B’Av. If he normally sleeps on two pillows, on Tisha B’Av he should sleep only on one… Pregnant women and people who are weak and are unable to deprive themselves of comfort when going to sleep are not required to do so. On Tisha B’Av, a person should curtail comforts and pleasures to the best of his ability.
MBY 556 Havdala on Tisha B’Av (abridged) (Once again, we quote heavily from A Summary of the Halachos of the Three Weeks, by Rav Shimon Eider zt”l, pp. 17, 31)
When Tisha B’Av occurs on Sunday - or on Shabbos and is thus observed on Sunday - the customary Havdala is not said. On Motzei Shabbos after nightfall, the bracha ‘Baruch… borei me-orei ha-aish’ is said upon seeing candlelight. This should best be said after Maariv before reading Eicha; however, if one forgot to say it before Eicha, he may say it anytime during the night. The bracha over spices is not said. On Motzei Tisha B’Av (i.e. Sunday night), Havdala is said over a cup of wine or beer. The Havdala consists only of the bracha on the beverage and ‘Baruch… haMavdil bein kodesh l’chol…’; spices are not used.
If the moon is visible on Motzei Tisha B’Av, the minhag is to perform Kiddush Levana (Sanctification of the New Moon) then (i.e. not earlier in the month.) When Tisha B’Av falls on Thursday, one should wait until Motzei Shabbos to perform Kiddush Levana.
MBY 557 Reciting the ‘Nacheim’ and ‘Aneinu’ inserts in the Shemoneh Esrei (abridged) (Once again, we quote heavily from A Summary of the Halachos of the Three Weeks, by Rav Shimon Eider zt”l, pp. 30-31)
The following tefilos are added to the Shemoneh Esrei on Tisha B’Av for Shacharis and Mincha, respectively:
Shacharis: Individuals do not add anything to their silent Shemoneh Esrei. During the repetition, the chazzan says ‘Aneinu’ with its separate concluding bracha before Refa-einu (Heal us!) He does not say ‘Nacheim’. Note: If he omitted ‘Aneinu’ in its proper place, he says it in Shema Koleinu, but with the regular concluding bracha of Shema Koleinu.
Mincha: Individuals say ‘Nacheim’ in the bracha V’li-yerushalayim (concluding with a special ending instead of the regular one ‘Borei Yerushalyim’) and ‘Aneinu’ in the bracha Shema Koleinu with the concluding bracha of Shema Koleinu. During the repetition, the chazzan says says ‘Aneinu’ with its separate concluding bracha before Refa-einu, and ‘Nacheim’ in V’li-yerushalayim, as explained above. Note: If one omitted either bracha in its proper place, he may say it during ‘Elokai Netzor’, at the very end of Shemoneh Esrei, right before the last pasuk ‘Yiheyu l’ratzon…’
On Tisha B’Av, Tachanun and Avinu Malkeinu are not said.
MBY 558 Motzei Tisha B’Av (abridged)
(Once again, we quote heavily from A Summary of the Halachos of the Three Weeks, by Rav Shimon Eider zt”l, pp. 31-32)
On the seventh of Av, the enemy entered the Beis Hamikdash. They ate, drank and defiled it on the seventh and eighth. On the ninth of Av, well into the day, they set it afire and it continued burning until sunset of the tenth! The reason the fast was not designated on the tenth of Av – even though most of the Beis Hamikdash burned then – is that the beginning of a catastrophe is considered to be more tragic… Because of the tragic events which continued into the tenth of Av, the restrictions of the Three Weeks and the Nine Days apply until halachic noon (‘chatzos’) of that day.
Therefore, the minhag is not to eat meat or drink wine during the evening and morning of the tenth of Av until chatzos – except for a ‘seudas mitzvah’. Bathing, haircuts, washing clothes and music are prohibited until chatzos as well, and Shehecheyanu is not recited.
When Tisha B’Av falls on Shabbos and is postponed until Sunday, eating meat and drinking wine is permissible Monday morning – the eleventh of Av. On Sunday evening, however, it is prohibited because of the mourning which took place that day. Since the day was spent in mourning, it is not proper to assume conduct of simcha immediately after it is over. However, the other restrictions - bathing, washing clothing and haircuts are permissible Sunday evening. Music is not permitted until the morning.
When Tisha B’Av falls on Thursday so that the tenth of Av is Erev Shabbos, haricuts and washing clothes are permissible Thursday night in honor of Shabbos. Bathing, however, should preferably not be done until Friday morning. If hot water would not be adequate for all to bathe on Friday, it is permissible Thursday night. Music and swimming are not permitted until Friday after ‘chatzos’.
559:1-10 Tefilos on Tisha B’Av and a Tisha B’Av Bris (abridged) (Once again, we quote heavily from A Summary of the Halachos of the Three Weeks, by Rav Shimon Eider zt”l, pp. 27-30)
The lighting in the shul is reduced on Tisha B’Av to the minimum required for davening and reading. Maariv is recited in a slow mournful voice, followed by the Full Kaddish. Eicha is then read, while everyone sits on the floor (or low chair or cushion, as we have learned.) When reading Eicha, one should pause briefly between one pasuk and the next, and longer between one perek (chapter) and the next. Eicha is read is a low mournful tone. The Reader reads each perek slightly louder than the previous one. The last pasuk in each perek is read louder than the rest of the perek.
The Shacharis davening should be in a low mournful voice as in the evening. After Shemoneh Esrei, a Sefer Torah is removed from the Ark. Three people are called to the Torah. The third person is the Maftir, and the Haftarah is read from Sefer Yirmiyahu 8-9, using the tune of Eicha (until the last few pesukim). [Ed. As with the tefilos on all of the holidays, we advise that one closely follow the instructions in his Siddur regarding any other omissions or insertions in the tefilos of Tisha B’Av.]
If there is an infant to be circumcised, the bris should be performed after the ‘kinos’ are completed (even if it is before chatzos). The reason is that since this mitzvah is performed with great simcha, it is improper while others are engaged in kinos and mourning. If the mother of the infant is not fasting and she is present at the bris, she should drink from the cup; otherwise it should be given to a child. The parents of the infant, the Mohel and the Sandek may change garments as for Shabbos, but must remove them after the bris. They are not permitted to wear shoes.
When a bris occurs on Sunday - when Tisha B’Av occurs on Shabbos but is postoned until Sunday, after Mincha - the parents of the infant, the Mohel and the Sandek make Havdala and may eat and bathe (!!!). The seuda, however, should not be made until evening. Note: If the bris occurs on Tisha B’Av which is not postponed, they must complete the fast, just like everyone else. A similar distinction is made concerning a Pidyon Haben which properly occurs on Tisha B’Av.
Wow… Hopefully Tisha B’Av is behind us!!! Next up – a related topic: Zecher l’Churban (remembering the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash). May we soon not have to learn these halachos any more!